Articles | Volume 30, issue 1
https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-30-37-2023
https://doi.org/10.5194/npg-30-37-2023
Research article
 | 
07 Feb 2023
Research article |  | 07 Feb 2023

Extending ensemble Kalman filter algorithms to assimilate observations with an unknown time offset

Elia Gorokhovsky and Jeffrey L. Anderson

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Short summary
Older observations of the Earth system sometimes lack information about the time they were taken, posing problems for analyses of past climate. To begin to ameliorate this problem, we propose new methods of varying complexity, including methods to estimate the distribution of the offsets between true and reported observation times. The most successful method accounts for the nonlinearity in the system, but even the less expensive ones can improve data assimilation in the presence of time error.