Articles | Volume 26, issue 4
Research article 15 Nov 2019
Research article | 15 Nov 2019
A prototype stochastic parameterization of regime behaviour in the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer
Carsten Abraham et al.
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James R. Christian, Kenneth L. Denman, Hakase Hayashida, Amber M. Holdsworth, Warren G. Lee, Olivier G. J. Riche, Andrew E. Shao, Nadja Steiner, and Neil C. Swart
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
The ocean chemistry and biology modules of the latest version of the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM5) are described in detail and evaluated against observations and other Earth System models. In the basic CanESM5 model, ocean biogeochemistry is similar to CanESM2 but embedded in a new ocean circulation model. In addition, an entirely new model, the Canadian Ocean Ecosystem model (CanESM5-CanOE), was developed. The most significant difference is that CanOE explicitly includes iron.
Fei Lu, Nils Weitzel, and Adam H. Monahan
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 26, 227–250,Short summary
ll-posedness of the inverse problem and sparse noisy data are two major challenges in the modeling of high-dimensional spatiotemporal processes. We present a Bayesian inference method with a strongly regularized posterior to overcome these challenges, enabling joint state-parameter estimation and quantifying uncertainty in the estimation. We demonstrate the method on a physically motivated nonlinear stochastic partial differential equation arising from paleoclimate construction.
Hakase Hayashida, James R. Christian, Amber M. Holdsworth, Xianmin Hu, Adam H. Monahan, Eric Mortenson, Paul G. Myers, Olivier G. J. Riche, Tessa Sou, and Nadja S. Steiner
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 1965–1990,Short summary
Ice algae, the primary producer in sea ice, play a fundamental role in shaping marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycling of key elements in polar regions. In this study, we developed a process-based numerical model component representing sea-ice biogeochemistry for a sea ice–ocean coupled general circulation model. The model developed can be used to simulate the projected changes in sea-ice ecosystems and biogeochemistry in response to on-going rapid decline of the Arctic.
Gerald M. Lohmann and Adam H. Monahan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3131–3144,Short summary
Using high-resolution surface irradiance data with original temporal resolutions between 0.01 s and 1 s from six different locations in the Northern Hemisphere, we characterize the changes in representation of temporal variability resulting from time averaging. Our results indicate that a temporal averaging time scale of around 1 s marks a transition in representing single-point irradiance variability, such that longer averages result in substantial underestimates of variability.
Adam H. Monahan
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 25, 335–353,Short summary
Bivariate probability density functions (pdfs) of wind speed characterize the relationship between speeds at two different locations or times. This study develops such pdfs of wind speed from distributions of the components, following a well-established approach for univariate distributions. The ability of these models to characterize example observed datasets is assessed. The mathematical complexity of these models suggests further extensions of this line of reasoning may not be practical.
Hakase Hayashida, Nadja Steiner, Adam Monahan, Virginie Galindo, Martine Lizotte, and Maurice Levasseur
Biogeosciences, 14, 3129–3155,Short summary
In remote regions, cloud conditions may be strongly influenced by oceanic source of dimethylsulfide (DMS) produced by plankton and bacteria. In the Arctic, sea ice provides an additional source of these aerosols. The results of this study highlight the importance of taking into account both the sea-ice sulfur cycle and ecosystem in the flux estimates of oceanic DMS near the ice margins and identify key uncertainties in processes and rates that would be better constrained by new observations.
Jan-Erik Tesdal, James R. Christian, Adam H. Monahan, and Knut von Salzen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10847–10864,Short summary
A global atmosphere model with explicit representation of aerosol processes is used to assess uncertainties in the climate impact of ocean DMS efflux and the role of spatial and temporal variability of the DMS flux in the effect on climate. The radiative effect of sulfate is nearly linearly related to global total DMS flux. Removing the spatial or temporal variability of DMS flux changes the global radiation budget, but the effect is of second-order importance relative to the global mean flux.
Gerald M. Lohmann, Adam H. Monahan, and Detlev Heinemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6365–6379,Short summary
Increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) power systems call for the characterization of irradiance variability with very high spatiotemporal resolution. We use 1 Hz irradiance data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers and show mixed sky conditions to differ substantially from clear and overcast skies. For example, the probabilities of strong fluctuations and their respective spatial autocorrelation structures are appreciably distinct under mixed conditions.
Related subject area
Subject: Time series, machine learning, networks, stochastic processes, extreme events | Topic: Climate, atmosphere, ocean, hydrology, cryosphere, biosphere | Techniques: SimulationImprovements to the use of the Trajectory-Adaptive Multilevel Sampling algorithm for the study of rare eventsSimulation-based comparison of multivariate ensemble post-processing methods
Pascal Wang, Daniele Castellana, and Henk A. Dijkstra
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 28, 135–151,Short summary
This paper proposes two improvements to the use of Trajectory-Adaptive Multilevel Sampling, a rare-event algorithm which computes noise-induced transition probabilities. The first improvement uses locally linearised dynamics in order to reduce the arbitrariness associated with defining what constitutes a transition. The second improvement uses empirical transition paths accumulated at high noise in order to formulate the score function which determines the performance of the algorithm.
Sebastian Lerch, Sándor Baran, Annette Möller, Jürgen Groß, Roman Schefzik, Stephan Hemri, and Maximiliane Graeter
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 27, 349–371,Short summary
Accurate models of spatial, temporal, and inter-variable dependencies are of crucial importance for many practical applications. We review and compare several methods for multivariate ensemble post-processing, where such dependencies are imposed via copula functions. Our investigations utilize simulation studies that mimic challenges occurring in practical applications and allow ready interpretation of the effects of different misspecifications of the numerical weather prediction ensemble.
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Atmospheric stably stratified boundary layers display transitions between regimes of sustained and intermittent turbulence. These transitions are not well represented in numerical weather prediction and climate models. A prototype explicitly stochastic turbulence parameterization simulating regime dynamics is presented and tested in an idealized model. Results demonstrate that the approach can improve the regime representation in models.
Atmospheric stably stratified boundary layers display transitions between regimes of sustained...