Granular flow in equilibrium with the bottom: experimental analysis and theoretical prediction
- DISTART - Universitá di Bologna Viale del Risorgimento 2, 40136 BOLOGNA, Italy
Abstract. The paper presents measurements performed on the granular flow that develops in a drum partially filled with sand grains and rotating at various speeds. The aims of the paper are: to provide experimental evidence and measurements on grain flow in a drum; to compare theoretical and experimental velocity profiles; to point out discrepancies among theory and experiments. Velocity and "temperature" profiles were obtained with a Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) in the mid-section of the stream, where the flow is usually uniform; image analysis and visual observations of the flow were also carried out to evaluate the local slope, the depths of the characteristic flow regions and the concentration of the granular material. A semi-empirical relation that fits the experimental velocity profiles is presented and compared with Takahashi's velocity distributions for rigid and erodible bed. As proven by the distributions of free surface elevation, velocity, volumetric concentration and grain size across the drum, the three-dimensional nature of the flow field is not negligible. By increasing the drum rotation speed, in correspondence with critical and supercritical flows, changes in the flow regime are observed with formation of quasi-stationary surface waves. Wave development is described by analysing the extension and form of the experimental and theoretical velocity profiles. Wave effects on measurements are quantified and checked comparing the free-surface velocity-discharge relation obtained from experiments and from Takahashi's model for erodible bed.