Manifestation of nonlinear elasticity in rock: convincing evidence over large frequency and strain intervals from laboratory studies
- 1Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexiko
- 2Institut Français du Pétrole, Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France
- *Also at Department d' Acoustique Physique, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6)
Abstract. Nonlinear elastic response in rock is established as a robust and representative characteristic rock rather than a curiosity. We show measurements of this behaviour from a variety of experiments on rock taken over many orders of magnitude in strain and frequency. The evidence leads to a pattern of unifying behaviour in rock: (1) Nonlinear response in rock is ubiquitous. (2) The response takes place over a large frequency interval (dc to 105 kHz at least). (3) The response not only occurs, as is commonly appreciated, large strains but also at small strains where this behaviour and the manifestations of this behaviour are commonly disregarded.