Articles | Volume 25, issue 2
Research article
27 Apr 2018
Research article |  | 27 Apr 2018

Wave propagation in the Lorenz-96 model

Dirk L. van Kekem and Alef E. Sterk

Abstract. In this paper we study the spatiotemporal properties of waves in the Lorenz-96 model and their dependence on the dimension parameter n and the forcing parameter F. For F > 0 the first bifurcation is either a supercritical Hopf or a double-Hopf bifurcation and the periodic attractor born at these bifurcations represents a traveling wave. Its spatial wave number increases linearly with n, but its period tends to a finite limit as n → ∞. For F < 0 and odd n, the first bifurcation is again a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, but in this case the period of the traveling wave also grows linearly with n. For F < 0 and even n, however, a Hopf bifurcation is preceded by either one or two pitchfork bifurcations, where the number of the latter bifurcations depends on whether n has remainder 2 or 0 upon division by 4. This bifurcation sequence leads to stationary waves and their spatiotemporal properties also depend on the remainder after dividing n by 4. Finally, we explain how the double-Hopf bifurcation can generate two or more stable waves with different spatiotemporal properties that coexist for the same parameter values n and F.

Short summary
In this paper we investigate the spatiotemporal properties of waves in the Lorenz-96 model. In particular, we explain how these properties are related to the presence of Hopf and pitchfork bifurcations. We also explain bifurcation scenarios by which multiple stable waves can coexist for the same parameter values.